Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.

Published date 2012 Jul 17

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.

シュードモナス属savastanoi pv. savastanoi:それの様ないくつかは、締めつけられる。

Published date



Cayo Ramos, Isabel M Matas, Leire Bardaji, Isabel M Aragón, Jesús Murillo


Área de Genética, Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea La Mayora, Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Málaga, Spain.


UNLABELLED: Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive (Olea europaea) knot disease and an unorthodox member of the P. syringae complex, causing aerial tumours instead of the foliar necroses and cankers characteristic of most members of this complex. Olive knot is present wherever olive is grown; although losses are difficult to assess, it is assumed that olive knot is one of the most important diseases of the olive crop. The last century witnessed a large number of scientific articles describing the biology, epidemiology and control of this pathogen. However, most P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains are highly recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which has effectively prevented the pathogen from benefitting from the scientific progress in molecular biology that has elevated the foliar pathogens of the P. syringae complex to supermodels. A number of studies in recent years have made significant advances in the biology, ecology and genetics of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi, paving the way for the molecular dissection of its interaction with other nonpathogenic bacteria and their woody hosts. The selection of a genetically pliable model strain was soon followed by the development of rapid methods for virulence assessment with micropropagated olive plants and the analysis of cellular interactions with the plant host. The generation of a draft genome of strain NCPPB 3335 and the closed sequence of its three native plasmids has allowed for functional and comparative genomic analyses for the identification of its pathogenicity gene complement. This includes 34 putative type III effector genes and genomic regions, shared with other pathogens of woody hosts, which encode metabolic pathways associated with the degradation of lignin-derived compounds. Now, the time is right to explore the molecular basis of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi-olive interaction and to obtain insights into why some pathovars like it necrotic and why some like it knot.


SYNONYMS: Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi.


TAXONOMY: Kingdom Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Pseudomonadaceae; Genus Pseudomonas; included in genomospecies 2 together with at least P. amygdali, P. ficuserectae, P. meliae and 16 other pathovars from the P. syringae complex (aesculi, ciccaronei, dendropanacis, eriobotryae, glycinea, hibisci, mellea, mori, myricae, phaseolicola, photiniae, sesami, tabaci, ulmi and certain strains of lachrymans and morsprunorum); when a formal proposal is made for the unification of these bacteria, the species name P. amygdali would take priority over P. savastanoi.


MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: Gram-negative rods, 0.4-0.8 × 1.0-3.0 μm, aerobic. Motile by one to four polar flagella, rather slow growing, optimal temperatures for growth of 25-30 °C; oxidase negative, arginine dihydrolase negative; elicits the hypersensitive response on tobacco; most isolates are fluorescent and levan negative, although some isolates are nonfluorescent and levan positive.


HOST RANGE: P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi causes tumours in cultivated and wild olive and ash (Fraxinus excelsior). Although strains from olive have been reported to infect oleander (Nerium oleander), this is generally not the case; however, strains of P. savastanoi pv. nerii can infect olive. Pathovars fraxini and nerii are differentiated from pathovar savastanoi mostly in their host range, and were not formally recognized until 1996. Literature before about 1996 generally names strains of the three pathovars as P. syringae ssp. savastanoi or P. savastanoi ssp. savastanoi, contributing to confusion on the host range and biological properties.


DISEASE SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of infected trees include hyperplastic growths (tumorous galls or knots) on the stems and branches of the host plant and, occasionally, on leaves and fruits.


EPIDEMIOLOGY: The pathogen can survive and multiply on aerial plant surfaces, as well as in knots, from where it can be dispersed by rain, wind, insects and human activities, entering the plant through wounds. Populations are very unevenly distributed in the plant, and suffer drastic fluctuations throughout the year, with maximum numbers of bacteria occurring during rainy and warm months. Populations of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi are normally associated with nonpathogenic bacteria, both epiphytically and endophytically, and have been demonstrated to form mutualistic consortia with Erwinia toletana and Pantoea agglomerans, which could result in increased bacterial populations and disease symptoms.


DISEASE CONTROL: Based on preventive measures, mostly sanitary and cultural practices. Integrated control programmes benefit from regular applications of copper formulations, which should be maintained for at least a few years for maximum benefit. Olive cultivars vary in their susceptibility to olive knot, but there are no known cultivars with full resistance to the pathogen.


USEFUL WEBSITES: http://www.pseudomonas-syringae.org/; http://genome.ppws.vt.edu/cgi-bin/MLST/home.pl; ASAP access to the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 genome sequence https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/asap/logon.php.


非ラベルをつけられる:シュードモナス属savastanoi pv. savastanoiはオリーブ(オリーブ)結節疾患の起因物とP. syringae複合体の正統でないメンバーである。
しかしながら、大部分のP. savastanoi pv. savastanoi株は遺伝子操作に高度に強情である。
そして、それは病原体がP. syringae複合体の葉の病原体をスーパーモデルまで上昇させた分子生物学における科学的な進展から利益を得るのを効果的に防止した。
多くの研究は近年P. savastanoi pv. savastanoiのバイオロジー、生態環境と遺伝学の有意に進歩した。
株NCPPB 3335の気流ゲノムとその3つの天然プラスミドの閉じた配列の生成は、その病原性遺伝子補体の同定のために、機能的なおよび比較のゲノム分析を考慮に入れた。
現在、時間は、P. savastanoi pv. savastanoiオリーブ相互作用の分子基礎を調査して、数疾患バールがそれが壊死であるのを好む理由とそれの様ないくつかが締めつけられる理由に対する洞察を得るのは正しい。

同義語:Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi。

分類学:王国細菌;門プロテオバクテリア;クラスGammaproteobacteria;家族のシュードモナス科;膝シュードモナス属;P. syringae複合体(lachrymansとmorsprunorumのaesculi、ciccaronei、dendropanacis、eriobotryae、glycinea、hibisci、mellea、mori、myricae、phaseolicola、photiniae、sesami、tabaci、ulmiと特定の株)から、少なくともP. amygdali、P. ficuserectae、P. meliaeと16他の疾患バールと共にgenomospecies 2に含まれる;正式な提案がこれらの細菌の統一のためになされるとき、種名P. amygdaliはP. savastanoiに優先する。


宿主域: P. savastanoi pv. savastanoiは、栽培されたおよび野生のオリーブと灰(トネリコ木毛)で腫瘍を引き起こす。
オリーブからの株はキョウチクトウ(セイヨウキョウチクトウ)を感染させることが報告されたにもかかわらず、これは通常、本当でない;しかしながら、P. savastanoi pv. neriiの株は、オリーブを感染させることができる。
約1996年以前の文献はP. syringae ssp. savastanoiまたはP. savastanoi ssp. savastanoiとして3疾患バールの株に一般に名づける。


P. savastanoi pv. savastanoiの集団は通常、epiphyticallyに、そして、endophyticallyに、非病原性細菌と関係していて、エルウィニア属toletanaとPantoea agglomeransで相利共生のコンソーシアムをつくるために示された。


役立つウェブサイト:http://www.pseudomonas-syringae.org/;http://genome.ppws.vt.edu/cgi-bin/MLST/home.pl;至急、P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPBに、3335のゲノム配列https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/asap/logon.php.にアクセスする。

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